Monday, December 1, 2008

Why Native American ancestors had European sounding names -last-

Indian Traders

European Indian traders, British soldiers and merchants that married Native American women, they passed their family names on to their offspring, disrupting the Native traditions of child naming. Europeans were determined to continue their well-established system of family relationships with the Scottish ‘cousin system’, used through Western Europe, to prevent possible incest in future generations.

Native Americans had a long-standing system that prevented incest by prohibiting anyone from the Mother’s Clan from marrying. They had a matriarchal system of family relations where blood relationships were passed from mother to child. A child born into any one Clan was prohibited from marrying anyone else from that same Clan, but condoned marriage to any of the other Clans.

In many cases, Indian Traders were ‘traveling salesmen’ and had ‘families’ in each town they visited on their established route. This is how the same family names appeared in the various Indian Nations at the same time. Since the mother’s Clan was responsible for the raising and teaching of all children born into that Clan, the mother’s were not very concerned as to whom the father really was, as the child belonged to the Clan.

The following family names were introduced into the Eastern Indian Nations as indicated below. Some of these men also traded with the other Tribes in the area and nearly all of them left children behind. This list is dated 1776, shortly before the Revolutionary War when the British still controlled this area.

Adair, Andrews, Bowles, Burrowson, Calbert, Campbell, Creadle, Crongleton, Cruise, Curtone, Danford, Derise, Dukes, Duncan, Francis, Foreman, Gilchrist, Gooding, Grant, Hannah, Highrider, Hildebrand, Hyde, James, Kemp, Lynch, McBean, McCartan (McCurtain), McDonald, McIntosh, Price, Rogers, Ross, Scott, Sealy, Shorey, Sims, Starr, Stuart, Vann, Wood

French explorers, soldiers and Indian Traders did business with the Shawnee, Creek, and Choctaw. If your Native American ancestor had a French family name, this early influence was the source of those names. Their range of influence was from Central Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and all modern states within the Louisiana Purchase. Most of the fur trade was based along rivers that were used for ferrying the trade goods to and from New Orleans.

The ‘Lost Colony’ of Roanoke Island, NC

These family names were introduced to the Cherokees of North Carolina between 1580 and 1600, from the settlement that White left behind. The English sailors of that early time were not familiar with the American hurricanes and their effect on low lying ‘barrier islands’ on the Atlantic seaboard. The survivors of these hurricanes intermarried with the local Indian bands and kept these names alive. Many of these names were already in circulation in the Old Cherokee Nation by the time the British Army built the fur trading post at Fort Louden, TN in 1740.

Some researchers have classified the descendants of these people as Melungelon Indians who had stories of picking up shipwrecked survivors and spreading into the hills of North Carolina and Kentucky. Spellings of these names are as listed from the original roster of settlers placed on Roanoke Island in 1587.

Allen, Archard, Arthur, Baily, Bennet, Berde, Berry, Bishop, Borden, Bridger, Bright, Brooks, Brown, Browne, Butler, Burdon, Cage, Chapman, Charman, Cheven, Clement, Colman (Coleman), Cooper, Cotsmuir, Dare, Darige, Dorrell, Dutton, Earnest, Ellis, English, Farre, Fernando, Florrie, Gibbes, Glane, Gramme (Graham), Graeme, Harris, Harvie (Harvey), Hemmington, Hewett, Howe, Hynde, Humphrey, Johnson, Jones, Kemme, Lasie, Lawrence, Little, Lucas, Mannering, Martin, Merimoth, Myllet, Mylton, Newton, Nichols, Paine (Payne), Patterson, Pierce, Powell, Phevens, Prat, Rufotte, Sampson, Scot (Scott), Shabedge, Smart, Smith, Sole, Spendlove, Sutton, Starte, Stevens, Stilman, Taylor, Tomkins, Topan, Tappan, Traverner, Tydway. Viccars, Warner, Warren, Waters, White, Wildye, Willes, Wilkinson, Wood, Wotton, Wright, Wyles, Wythers.

Excerpt from a recent article on the ‘Lost Colony’

This “Indian English” mixed-blood group migrated inland as early as 1650. When the first white settlers arrived in the area that was later called Robeson County, NC, they found a large tribe of English speaking Indians. They were farmers and practiced many of the so-called ‘civilized arts’ such as keeping slaves and building their houses in an old English country style. Many of these Indians had English sounding names that have been matched to the list of colonists left on Roanoke Island in 1580.

This material was found in a book, "Sir Walter Raleigh's Lost Colony” by Hon. Hamilton McMillan, of Fayetteville, N. C

Saturday, November 15, 2008

Why Native American ancestors had European sounding names -3-

Names Chosen at random –

A Scottish woman named Taylor married an Englishman named Fox. The mother remarried a Conrad from Holland and migrated to the Cherokee Nation. One of their sons Hamilton Conrad married a Cherokee woman named Onai and had several children named ‘Rattling Gourd’, ‘Hair’, ‘Young Wolf’, and ‘Terrapin Head’. Descendants of these men retained their father’s Indian names as their family names.

"The Goose" was half Cherokee and half Spanish. He was called "Dick Spaniard" until he enlisted in the Confederacy and changed it to the Christian name of Johnson.

Government record keeping

In most cases, a person had to have a direct ancestor on the previous Roll in order to be ‘qualified’ to apply for the current Roll. By 1850 the government bean-counters had such a problem identifying Indians from one Roll to the next, they began assigning European names to individuals. The Heads-of-House were allowed to choose the name of their most recent European ancestor, a family benefactor, an English translation of their Indian name, or have one picked at random by the census takers. The US Department of Immigration and Naturalization (INS) is still using this process today, especially if a name is difficult to spell.

Other early researchers have been able to identify some of the name changes by tracing the family back to a previous Treaty Roll where their Indian name was used. The main reason for this is a genealogy trace is nearly impossible with a random name change with little or no documentation.

Slaves and FreedMen

Many of the wealthy Indians kept slaves and adopted Free Men of Color into their Tribe. The custom at the time was for a slave or FreeMan with no family name to be assigned the family name of the person who owned the property where they were living. As slaves were bought and sold, their family names would change to the new owner’s.

Indians took captives whenever they made a raid on another village or settlement. Before the whites arrived, Indians took other Indians captive and made them into slaves. Most Eastern Indians allowed the slaves to be freed if they learned the language and customs were a ‘good citizen’ and followed the established code of conduct. When they were adopted, they were given a new Indian name, a rifle, and allowed to marry an Indian. The Cherokees made little distinction based on a persons color, you were Full Blood, Mixed Blood or White.

Missionary influence

When white missionaries moved into the various Indian Nations, they generally took Indian wives. When an Indian was baptized, they were given the name of a church sponsor who had made a large donation to the Foreign Mission. Church supporters in New England would make donations for the education of promising or exceptionally bright youngsters.

Indian children were educated in reading, writing, simple arithmetic, with a heavy dose of English and Bible study. Those that held promise of being a good preacher, were then sent to New England for further study. The Moravian Missionaries sent these Indian children to Cornwall, Massachusetts, where their church headquarters was located. Most Cherokee families refused to allow their children to travel that far away from home, and were fearful that the child would become less Indian by being exposed to white society.

During the term of a preachers stay in the Indian Nations, there were a large number of children born that carried either the preachers first name or his family name. It is difficult to determine if these children were his, or the family named these children because the preacher impressed them so much.

Sunday, November 2, 2008

Why Native American ancestors had European sounding names -2-

About 1740, the British established a Frontier Post in Eastern Tennessee called Fort Louden. In those days, the British government paid their foreign soldiers in land grants upon completion of service, in the country where they served. Approximately half of these soldiers took Cherokee wives or had Cherokee girlfriends for the duration of their deployment, and passed on their family name to their children.

In many cases, Indian names were ‘translated’ into English, as the names were typically some animal, plant or action. Many of these names were ‘lost in translation’ through mistakes in interpretation. “The Rope” pointed to a coil of rope and was mistakenly named “Coil”; “The Otter” demonstrated his name by lifting up an otter and was immediately named “Muskrat Lifter” (the whites didn’t know the difference between an otter and a muskrat). This name continued to change over the years to “Rat Lifter” and eventually Ratliff; The first son of Cherokee Emperor Moy Toy, demonstrated his Indian name of ‘Leaning Wood” by placing several poles against another pole. This earned him the name of “Little Carpenter”.

The famous Chickamauga Warrior Chief “Dragging Canoe” was about 3 when he pestered his mother’s uncles to go into battle with them. They told him that when he was old enough to push a war canoe into the river, he would be ready. These war canoes were about 20 feet long and 4 to 5 feet wide, hollowed out tree trunks. One day not much later, he was seen dragging the canoe toward the water and one of the Indians exclaimed “The Canoe – he is dragging it”, so he became known as “Dragging Canoe”. His modern descendants modified the mane to Canoe.

Other Indians adopted the name of a white friend or benefactor, and others named their children after famous white leaders. In Cherokee genealogy there are hundreds of George Washington, Andrew Jackson, Daniel Webster with their family name tacked on at the end.

In early Indian society, the women were in charge. The men hunted, fished, made babies and were generally useless for other things. When they married, the wife’s Clan (her blood relatives) provided the couple with a house and was responsible for training and raising the children. In many cases, the husband would be known by his wife’s name.

For instance - John Shepherd (1/2 Cherokee) married Eutsangih Roasting Ear and was henceforward called John Roasting Ear. The family claimed the name of their white ancestor, John Shepherd, in 1883 when the white census takers demanded the Indians use English names for the legal records. The whites could not spell Cherokee names and had to write them down by phonetics. Spelling changed from Roll to Roll and made it nearly impossible to determine if a person was the same or a descendant of someone on a previous Roll.

On the Mullay Roll of North Carolina in 1848 is a John A-lar-Che. This same man and his family were recorded two years later in 1850 on the Siler Roll as John A-lah-Chih. In a similar case, there is a Ah-to-wih on the Chapman Roll of 1851 and he is identified as A-am-nea on the Hester Roll of 1883.

In some instances, Cherokees had Indian names that translated into something offensive to the whites and they were forced to change their family name. One such case was “White Man Killer”. This name was changed to “Mankiller” for the Dawes Roll in 1900. In other cases, compound names were split in following generations such as “Rattling Gourd” was modified to “Ratlingourd” then split between two branches of descendants to the “Rattler” family and the “Gourd” family.

The following list contains early family names in the old Cherokee Nation, where the nation of origin is known. There are hundreds of additional family names represented on the first Cherokee Roll that was a result of the Treaty of New Echota in 1817. I did not show them here, as their country of origin was not known.

Adair ~1758 Scotland

Agnew ~1815 England

Alberty ~1780 England

Blackburn ~1780 England

Bowles ~1760 Scotland

Buffington ~1750 England

Cordery ~1760 England

Crutchfield ~1780 England

Daniel ~1750 England

Downing ~1740 British Army

Due ~1750 England

Duncan ~1760 Scotland

Fawling ~1750 England

Fields ~1770 England

Foreman ~1770 Scotland

Gentry ~1800 England

Grant ~1724 Scotland

Gunter ~1800 Welch

Harlan ~1650 England

Hildebrand ~1800 Germany

Lowrey ~1770 England

Lynch ~1780 Ireland

Martin ~ 1740 England

McDonald ~1750 Scotland

Riley ~1760 England

Rogers ~1750 Scotland/England

Ross ~1750 Scotland

Sanders ~1750 England

Shorey ~1720 Scotland

Starr ~1758 Ireland

Stuart 1760 - British Army

Vann ~1700 Scotland, derived from early spelling error - Vaus to Vans to Vann

Ward ~1770 England

Wharton ~1688 England

Wickett ~1770 England

Original Native American names that have changed spelling over time

Chisholm - North Carolina Cherokee

Guess - derived from Alexander GIST ~1760

Watie - derived from Oo-Wa-Te meaning "he stands in the door".

Ridge - "The Ridge, he walks it" or "Ridge Walker"

Baldridge - derived from Baldridge Lowrey, some descendants used Baldridge as a family name and others used Lowrey.

Sunday, September 28, 2008

Why Native American ancestors had European sounding names -1-

Traditionally Indians were given Indian names at a few years of age, again when they reached puberty, and finally when they accomplished something noteworthy. Typically, Indian names reflected some part of a person’s personality or habits that stood out from the rest of the Tribe. There are also many names that defy interpretation and are basically the same as given names we use today. There were many other names that sounded like English names and were recorded with fixed English spelling.

Na-Ni was recorded as Nanny, or Nancy

Aul-Cih was recorded as Alsey or Allice

Su-San was recorded as Susan

Ah-Ne was recorded as Annie

Ah-Che was recorded as Archie or Arch

The earliest introduction of English names came from shipwrecked whites that were assimilated into the Tribe. The earliest records indicate “White’s Lost Colony” of Roanoke Island, was rescued from violent hurricanes by a friendly Band of Cherokees from North Carolina. When White returned three years later, the town had been completely destroyed and only the word Croatian was carved into the trunk of a tree.

These refugees intermarried with the Indians and kept their English language and customs nearly intact for nearly 200 years until they were ‘discovered’ in Eastern and Central North Carolina. The names from the old colony lists were well-established family names in the Cherokee Nation prior to the British arrival in-strength in 1740.

The vast majority of English names came from early British soldiers or merchants who took Cherokee wives while they were on the ‘frontier’. Early Fur Traders or ‘Indian Traders’ were typically Scotsmen who had been ‘transported’ to the Colonies as prisoners of war from the Scottish Revolutions.

These men had been captured in battle with the English and it was expensive to keep them in prisons, and there was always a chance of an escape. The Colonies needed laborers that the British colonists felt was beneath them, but they couldn’t afford to buy slaves. The Scottish rebels were packed on ships and ‘transported’ to the New World and auctioned on their arrival for the cost of their transport, into Indentured Servitude.

These indentured servants couldn’t attract a mate, due to their economic status. As soon as they had completed their term of servitude, typically 7 years, they would set off to the frontier to make their fortune. The most lucrative trade at the time was furs and skins for the European markets. Indian Tribes tended to distrust whites that were just passing through their Nation, so business was difficult if not dangerous.

Scotsmen found the rough life to their liking and were easily persuaded to take an Indian wife. By marrying into the Tribe, the man acquired a large extended family of his wife’s Clan. By living among the Indians, he gained the Indians trust that he would provide a ‘fair trade’ for the furs and skins. By learning the language and the Tribal customs, he became an interpreter to the British outposts, British merchants, and government agencies.

Sunday, May 18, 2008

Using the Dawes Rolls to find your Cherokee ancestor - 5 -

*Answer to a recent e-mail question on how to find "Grandfather" REAMS or REAMES on the Cherokee Rolls. This person had contacted the Cherokee Nation in North Carolina and had found ‘nothing useful’. *

The Cherokee Nation (Eastern Band) of North Carolina completed their registration Roll in 1924. This was called the Baker Roll, and it used several previous Rolls in North Carolina as a basis for admission. Not all Cherokee descendants registered. They may not have been living in that area at that time, they may not have wanted to identify themselves as Indians, or they may not have had enough money to pay the application fees. These application fees were approximately equal to two to three
months wages at the time.

This persons ancestors may have applied for the Miller Roll in 1906, which was voluntary and covered the whole US and its possessions. The application fee was a bit less expensive and there was a chance of receiving some money from the Miller Roll. This Roll listed the names ofthe Heads of House, Maiden names of spouses, Year and Place of birth, and their residence in 1906, town, county, and state.

To start any search, you need to know about what year your ancestor was born and about what year they died. You also need to know where they lived during their life. Especially important is where did they live during the dates of the various Rolls. If they lived in the right area at the right time, they have a good chance of them being on that Roll.

Going back in time, the Rolls were

1924 - Baker Roll - North Carolina and surrounding states

1908 - Churchill Roll - North Carolina and surrounding states

1906 - Miller Roll - anywhere in the US or its possessions

1900 - Dawes Roll - Oklahoma Territory and surrounding states

1883 - Hester Roll - North Carolina and surrounding states

1880 - Cherokee National Census - Oklahoma and surrounding areas

1869 - Swetland Roll - North Carolina and surrounding states

1852 - Chapman Roll - Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina and surrounding states

1852 - Drennen Roll - Oklahoma and surrounding areas

1851 - Siler Roll - Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina and surrounding states

1851 - Old Settlers Roll - Oklahoma and surrounding areas

1848 - Mullay Roll - North Carolina and surrounding states

1835 - Henderson Roll - Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina

1817 - Reservation Roll and the Emigration Roll - Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina and surrounding areas

For instance, if your ancestor was living near North Carolina in 1900 to 1924, he/she may be listed on the Miller Roll, the Churchill Roll, or the Baker Roll.

In the case of a family named REAMS / REAMES on the Miller Roll of 1906. Quite often it is necessary to check alternative spelling, as most people in the US were illiterate during this period. Their names were recorded by the census takers based on the way the name sounded. REEMS was not a common Cherokee family name, however, REEVES was very common. Depending on your ancestors 'regional accent' and the phonetic ability of the census takers, Reeves and Reams can easily be confused. Just
think of your own experience of people misspelling your family name when you are speaking on the phone.

This list shows the Miller Roll Application Number, Family name in 1906, Given name, Maiden name, Year and State of birth, - Residence in 1906

21493 REAMES, Luvine Eve MELTON, born 1886 in AR - Booneville, Logan Co, AR

37829 REAMS, Bert, b 1879 MO - CENTRALIA, Boone Co, MO

37827 REAMS, Catherine CANNON, b 1843 MO - STURGEON, Boone Co, MO

37831 ROBERTS, Gertie REAMS, b 1879 MO - CENTRALIA, Boone Co, MO

37828 REAMS, John, b 1873 MO - STURGEON, Boone Co, MO

37832 FOUNTAIN, Maggie REAMS, b 1864 MO - STURGEON, Boone Co, MO

37830 DOWNEY, Minnie REAMS, b 1876 MO - SALINE, MERCER Co, MO

This list shows people with this family name that claimed Cherokee blood, and lived in or near Missouri which was part of New Indian Territories from 1804 to 1850. People with Cherokee or any other Indian blood, who lived in Missouri after 1850, kept their mouths shut in fear of 'discovery' by their neighbors. There were strong Anti-Indian laws in effect all over the US from 1840 to about 1935, that were designed and enforced by the federal and state governments to force Indians to live
on reservations.

In nearly every case, you should obtain a copy of your ancestor’s birth or death certificate to find out what their parents names were. Birth and Death certificates were 'uncommon' prior to 1920. If an ancestor was born prior to 1920, the best bet is to find a death certificate for this person or possibly a 'delayed birth certificate' that would have beenissued when the person was an adult.

If you find an ancestor or any relative on the Miller Roll, you should order a copy of their Application Jacket from the US National Archives in Fort Worth, Texas. Photo copies of the original paperwork will cost you an average of $10 per application number (includes all members of the family that were living in that household, including their siblings,children, parents and grandparents names and dates of birth). In many cases, all you can find is someone of the same family name who was
living in the same part of the country. Since families tended to live close together, it is possible that people with the same family name living in the same area, were related by blood or marriage.

If you need to order copies of these papers, be sure to list your ancestor’s name, that they were members of the Cherokee Tribe, they were listed on the Miller Roll, and their Miller Roll Application number. The National Archives office in Fort Worth (Southwest Division) also keeps records of all Indians who were in the New Indian Territories back to 1850, and in some cases, much earlier. The original "New Indian
Territory" covered everything west of the Mississippi and south of the Missouri River, down to the border of New Spain (Republic of Texas).

Thursday, May 1, 2008

Using the Dawes Rolls to find your Cherokee ancestor - 4 -

Blood quanta was not a major concern among Cherokees before this time. If a person had a Cherokee mother or if the person was living like a Cherokee, then they were considered Full Blood. If they had a white mother, or were living like whites within the Cherokee Nation, they were considered ‘mixed blood’. When the Dawes Roll was taken in 1900, the US government stressed Blood Quanta and asked each applicant to state how much Cherokee blood they had. Most Cherokees either did not know or did not care, but they found out quickly that if they put down ½ blood or more, the government agents treated them like idiots, incapable of handling their own affairs.

The government assigned a white ‘overseer’ to manage all legal and financial arrangements of Cherokees who were ½ to Full Blood. In many cases, these Cherokee families became virtual slaves to the white overseer, who rapidly ran their farms and bank accounts into ‘false bankruptcy’, so the overseer and his friends could buy-back the fake papers for pennies on the dollar, and claim the land for themselves.

Before the Dawes Roll was finalized in 1917, the government adopted a rule that stated a Cherokee descendant could not claim more blood quanta than what was claimed by their ancestor on the Dawes Roll, divided by 2 for each following generation. Fortunately, the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma has not yet adopted a minimum blood quanta requirement for Tribal membership.

Census Card #5630 belonged to a married daughter Maude Rogers –

Lane Cap L 35 1865 M IW 5630 NR CHELSEA

Lane Maud 31 1869 F 1/16 5630 13515

Lane Estella 8 1892 F 1/32 5630 13516

Lane Ethel L 6 1894 F 1/32 5630 13517

Lane James G 3 1897 M 1/32 5630 13518

The parents of Cap Lane were R.A. & Mattie Lane

Maude Rogers, born ~1869, a resident of Chelsea, OK, married a white man named Cap Lane. They had three children listed above, born between 1892 and 1897. Since Maude and Cap were married after 1875, Cap Lane was not issued a Dawes Roll Number. Cap's name, age and birth date will not appear on the Final Dawes Roll. A listing for his 'numeric position' will simply say "Stricken". Mattie could have claimed ¼ blood but probably not absolutely sure of her parents blood quanta, she just put
down 1/16th, just like her sister who was living near by in the same town.

Now I could follow this family back to the Cherokee National Census of 1880, then to the Old Settlers Roll of 1850 or the Drennen Roll of 1851, and track down Mary America Schrimsher’s family line as well. Since Clement Vann Rogers was born in 1839, his name will not appear on the Trail of Tears Roll of 1835, but his father will be on this Roll.

Sunday, April 20, 2008

Using the Dawes Rolls to find your Cherokee ancestor - 3 -

To explain some of the ‘alphabet soup’ you see, I am going to take two
men with a birth date close to your William Rogers and explain the data….

_/Example 1/_

CHER, FRR, Rogers, William, 21, 1879, M, NR, FRR963, NR

CHER – Cherokee Tribe, CHOC – Choctaw, DEL – Delaware, OS – Osage

NOTE – the Cherokee Dawes Roll initially listed these Tribes separately,
but the Delaware and Osage were combined with the Cherokee on the Final
Dawes Roll in 1917.

FRR – FR – FreedMan, R– Rejected, D - Doubtful

Name -Rogers, William

Age 21, at the time of application

Born ~1879 (estimated based on the average date of Tribal application 1900)


Blood quanta – NR - Not Recorded

Census Card #FRR963

Roll # NR - Not Recorded

Using his Census Card # FRR963, I find on my CD, that his father was
Charley Rogers. His mothers name was not listed on the Census Card. He
did not list a spouse, minor siblings, or any children on his
application. This means he was probably living alone.

_/Example 2/_

CHER, BB, Rogers, William P, 20, 1880, M, ¼, 4747, 11384

CHER – Cherokee Tribe

BB – By Blood (born Cherokee)

Rogers, William P

Age 20, at time of application

Born ~ 1880


1/4 blood

Census Card #4747

Roll #11384

Using his Census Card #4747, I find on my CD, that his parents were
Clement V and Mary Rogers, and his father Clement was still alive and
living with him. Clem V Rogers and Mary Rogers matches up with the
family information I found on my ancestors death certificate. William’s
estimated date of birth was listed as 1880 instead of 1879, so his
family probably applied for the Rolls in 1899 or, he was only 19 ½ years
old when the application was filed, not yet 20 years old.

This is the ancestor I was looking for, and he was on the Dawes Roll.
With the birth and death certificates I have collected, I can apply for
Tribal membership with the Cherokee Nation, apply for a Certified Degree
of Indian Blood Card (CDIB) from the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), and
I can order several personal documents including a fairly complete
family history of my ancestor from the US National Archives, by using
his Dawes Roll number or his Census Card number.

Additional information on this Census Card, shows Clement V Rogers was
61 in 1900, born ~1839, also ¼ blood Cherokee, Dawes Roll #11383, and
was living in Claremore, Oklahoma when he applied. His wife Mary
Schrimsher did not have a date of birth listed because she had died
prior to the enrollment date.

His census card showed no other children living at home and William was
not listed with a wife or children of his own. I checked other ‘family
records’ and find that his child that I am descended from was born in
1909, so William was not married at the time of the Dawes Roll in 1900.

However, by analysis of his parents Census Card Numbers I can see all of
their other children who claimed them as parents when these children
filed their own Dawes Roll Applications.

CLEM V ROGERS is listed as a ‘Parent’ of these Census Card numbers 4899,
5461, and 5630.

Searching my CD for Cherokee Census Card numbers I find –

Census Card #4899 belonged to a married daughter May Rogers, a resident
of Talala, OK

Stine May 27 1873 F 1/4 11696

Yocum John V 7 1893 M 1/8 11697

Stine Edward J 1 1899 M 1/8 11698

Stine Frank ( father of Edward Stine)

Yocum Matt (father of John V Yokum)

May Stine listed her parents as Clement V and Mary Rogers. She was born
~1873, she had married Matt Yocum and had a son John V Yocum in 1893,
then she married Frank Stine and had a son Edward J Stine in 1899. She
and her children were registered on the Dawes Roll, she was 1/4 blood,
her children were 1/8th blood and her husbands blood quanta, dates of
birth etc were not listed. This indicates they were probably white men.

Census Card #5461 belonged to a married daughter Sallie Rogers -

McSpadden John T 48 1852 M IW 175

McSpadden Sallie C 36 1864 F 1/16 13071

McSpadden Clem M 13 1887 M 1/32 13072

McSpadden Maud I 4 1896 F 1/32 13075

McSpadden May 9 1891 F 1/32 13073

McSpadden Herbert T 7 1893 M 1/32 13074

McSpadden Helen 1 1899 F 1/32 13076

McSpadden Pauline 1 1899 F 1/32 13077

McSpadden Tom (father of John T McSpadden)

McSpadden Elizabeth J (mother of John T McSpadden)

Sallie C Rogers was born ~1864, married a White man John T McSpadden,
b~1852 (listed as IW = Intermarried White) and had several children
(listed above) and was living in Chelsea, OK in 1900. Her husband was
initially issued an “Intermarried White” Dawes Roll #IW-175. In 1917,
when the Dawes Roll was finalized, the government 'Struck' the names of
Intermarried Whites who had not married Cherokees prior to 1875, so his
name will not appear on the Final Roll. Sallie could have claimed ¼
blood but probably not absolutely sure of her parents blood quanta, she
just put down 1/16th.